Social and Economic Condition
Total population and distribution. Population data of West Java Province shows as of 2012 the total number of population residing in Citarum River Basin amounted to 15,950,299 people or 35.8% of the total West Java population (44,548,431 people). The Citarum River Basin population is distributed across 10 districts and 2 cities in West Java with the largest percentage or 21% of them or 3,307,396 people residing in Bandung District and another 15% or 2,461,931 people living in the city of Bandung.
Population distribution is concentrated on centers of activities and industries such as in Bandung District, Bandung City, Karawang District, Bekasi District and Bekasi City.
Population growth rate. The average population growth rate between 2000 and 2010 in Citarum River Basin was at 1.66%, slightly lower than the rate for West Java Province (1.90%). Based on the 1980-2010 population growth trend, there was an increase of population growth from 1.59% in a 1980-2010 period to 1.66% in a 2000-2010 period. Areas with highest population growth rates were Bandung District (2.55%) and Cimahi City (2.04%) in the upstream region, Purwakarta District (1.99%) in the middle region and Bekasi District in the downstream region. Indramayu District is an area with the lowest population growth rate.
Population density. Population density within Citarum River Basin stood at 1,272 people/km2 in 2012 or higher than the average population density in West Java Province of 1,198 people/km2. Based on the historical trend, in a period between 1980 and 2012 the population density in the river basin continued to rise in parallel with the growing number of population.
Population projection. In accordance with the 2000, 2005 and 2010 data, total population in Citarum River Basin is projected to reach 30,931,450 people by 2040. This population projection indicates a growing population pressure against Citarum River Basin and is expected to affect the issues of environment, basic infrastructure services and others while the impact has been currently felt.
Poverty. The 2013 Data from the Central Bureau of Statistics (BPS) shows that the total number of poor population in West Java was 4.4 million people (9.89%) in September 2012. It decreased by 200,000 people when compared to the September 2011 figure. In a period of 2007-2012, the percentage of the total rural and urban poor decreased from 13.55% in 2007 to 9.89% in 2012.
Total workforce within Citarum River Basin increased from 2005 to 2010, or rose from 7,487,365 to 11,785,666 people. The increase in the number of migrants partly contributed to the growing number of workforce in the basin area. The workforce growth rate was not in parallel with the job growth level, causing a decline in job opportunities and a rise in unemployment.
Health condition of the people in Citarum River Basin is also seen from an environmental health perspective. Between 2009 and 2010 the number of people with access to drink water significantly increased by 10.1% from 53.66% in 2009 to 63.94% in 2010. This figure, however, needs to be further increased considering that the number of people with access to drink water is still relatively low. The percentage of people with healthy housing dropped by 2.75% in 2010 when compared to the previous year. This condition calls for a greater effort to improve the number of healthy houses in the basin.
West Java is one of the provinces which play a relatively important economic role both within the Island of Java and Indonesia. In 2012, West Java provincial economy contributed to 14.07% of the national income. While the share of the Island of Java’s income to national income was 57,62%. It means that West Java contributed to 24.41% of the Island of Java income. This shows the importance of West Java’s economy in driving both the Island of Java and national economies.
West Java Gross Regional Domestic Products (PDRB). In a period between 2010 and 2012, West Java economic performance kept increasing with an economic growth rate close to the national rate (6.23%), that is, 6.21% (2012). The 2010 West Java economic growth was much contributed by the growth of gross added value in the sectors of transportation, construction and trade with growth rates at 12%, 13.61% and 11.55% respectively.
By the amount of total income contributed by districts and cities within Citarum River Basin to the 2010 West Java Gross Regional Domestic Product at constant 2000 prices, the top five contributors are Bekasi District (17.88%), Bogor District (13.57%), Bandung City (10.30%), Bandung District (7.08%) and Bekasi City (5.03%).