Infrastructure Condition

Irrigation Network System. As one of the top rice producers at a national level West Java Province is home to a huge area of rice fields totaling to ± 1,000,000 ha with 89.6% of the total is technically irrigated and the rest 10,4% rainfed. In Citarum River Basin, technically irrigated rice fields are found in about 361,380 ha of land or 37% of the total rice field area in West Java (an analysis made by Ribasim said that the basin’s total rice field area is 354,082 ha). And they are under supervision of central, provincial, district and municipal governments.  

Upper Citarum Irrigation System. Upper Citarum River Basin region has a total rice field area of 17,218 ha with technical irrigation whose water source supplied by Citarum and its tributaries. Of the total 22 irrigated areas in the upstream region, Leuwkuya and Cirasea irrigation areas are the two largest with a total combined area of over 2,800 ha.
Middle Citarum Irrigation System. Middle Citarum River Basin has a total rice field area of ± 23,399 ha whose irrigation water supplied by Citarum River and its tributaries. This middle Citarum region has 11 technically irrigated areas including the two largest areas of Cihea with 5,495 ha and Cipamingkis with 4,591 ha.  
Downstream Citarum Irrigation System. The downstream region has 11 technically irrigated rice field area covering a total area of 286,459 ha or 79% of the total rice fields with technical irrigation in all over Citarum River Basin. The largest irrigated area is Jatiluhur region with a total area of  ± 240,000 ha. The other large areas include the 11,864 ha Salam Darma region and the 10,400 ha Macan region.

Drinking Water Service Citarum River Basin has piped and non-piped water distribution systems. Piped water providers are region-owned water utility companies well known by their abbreviations of PDAM. The basin has 9 PDAMs operating to provide piped water. Besides the 9 PDAMs, there is a state-run company called PJT II which supplies Citarum water via tarum canal to the capital Jakarta.  

Waste management system is carried out through some waste disposal facilities installed in the river basin area such as:

IPAL Bojongsoang, Bandung’s wastewater is only treated by a single Wastewater Treatment Plant (IPAL) in Bojongsoang only with a capacity to treat wastewater produced by a total 400,000 people, or about 15% of the current total population of Bandung.

IPAL Cisirung is located in Pasawahan Village, Dayeuhkolot Sub-district, Mochamad Toha, Bandung.  IPAL Cisirung is operated by PT Damba Intra. It is located on a 1.2 ha plot of land provided by a South Bandung business society through a foundation called Yayasan Dharma Bakti  Industri Bandung Selatan (YDBIBS).  
Waste management in Bandung and its surroundings is managed by some waste disposal centers (TPS), including:



Location : Sarimukti Village, Cipatat Sub-district, Bandung Barat District
Total Area : 25.2 ha, consisting of a 21.5 ha land of the state-run forestry company Perhutani and a 4 ha land of Bandung and Cimahi municipal governments.
Total Capacity : 1.962.637 m3
Effective Landfill Area : 60% of the total area
Infrastructure and facilities : 40% of the total area


Location : Cimahi City
Total Area : 25.1 Ha
Total Capacity : 3.700 m3/day

Due to a 2005 landslide in this landfill, waste disposing operation has been relocated to another disposal center in Sarimukti. The landslide was caused by, among others, an open dumping practice, a lack of infrastructure, an unfavorable natural condition and a flood incident.


Location : Ciherang Village, Nagreg Sub-district, Bandung District
Total Area : 65 Ha
Total Capacity : - m3
Status 2012 : Under Construction
Expected to start operation : 2015

Drinking water service in Citarum River Basin is carried out through piped and non-piped water systems. The piped water system is provided by some region-owned water utility companies well known by the abbreviation of PDAM. There are 9 PDAMs that provide piped-water service in the basin.  

Downstream Citarum regions have a separate drainage system to allow access to Jatiluhur Dam water sources. The water is distributed for the provisions of drinking water, industrial productions and others. This Tarum canal has a function to flow raw water and to supply irrigation water. The canal network is divided into West Tarum, East Tarum and Main Tarum Canals.  West Tarum Canal has a function to provide 80% of Jakarta raw water supply, while East and Main Tarum Canals supply irrigation water.

Hydro Power Plant. There are 3 Hydro Power Plants in the three main reservoirs of Citarum River Basin. The Citarum water have been used as a source of electricity generation on a large scale. Those three of hydro power plant are PLTA Jatilihur/ PLTA Ir.H. Djuanda (managed by Perum Jasa Tirta II, Total Capacity Power 175 MW), PLTA Saguling (managed Indonesia Power, Total Capacity Power 1,008 MW), and PLTA Cirata (managed by PT. PLN PJB 11 {UP Cirata}, Total Power 1008 MW).



Social and Economic Condition

Total population and distribution.  Population data of West Java Province shows as of 2012 the total number of population residing in Citarum River Basin amounted to 15,950,299 people or 35.8% of the total West Java population (44,548,431 people). The Citarum River Basin population is distributed across 10 districts and 2 cities in West Java with the largest percentage or 21% of them or 3,307,396 people residing in Bandung District and another 15% or 2,461,931 people living in the city of Bandung.   

Population distribution is concentrated on centers of activities and industries such as in Bandung District, Bandung City, Karawang District, Bekasi District and Bekasi City.  

Population growth rate. The average population growth rate between 2000 and 2010 in Citarum River Basin was at 1.66%, slightly lower than the rate for West Java Province (1.90%). Based on the 1980-2010 population growth trend, there was an increase of population growth from 1.59% in a 1980-2010 period to 1.66% in a 2000-2010 period. Areas with highest population growth rates were Bandung District (2.55%) and Cimahi City (2.04%) in the upstream region, Purwakarta District (1.99%) in the middle region and Bekasi District in the downstream region. Indramayu District is an area with the lowest population growth rate.

Population density. Population density within Citarum River Basin stood at 1,272 people/km2 in 2012 or higher than the average population density in West Java Province of 1,198 people/km2. Based on the historical trend, in a period between 1980 and 2012 the population density in the river basin continued to rise in parallel with the growing number of population.

Population projection. In accordance with the 2000, 2005 and 2010 data, total population in Citarum River Basin is projected to reach 30,931,450 people by 2040. This population projection indicates a growing population pressure against Citarum River Basin and is expected to affect the issues of environment, basic infrastructure services and others while the impact has been currently felt.

Poverty. The 2013 Data from the Central Bureau of Statistics (BPS) shows that the total number of poor population in West Java was 4.4 million people (9.89%) in September 2012. It decreased by 200,000 people when compared to the September 2011 figure. In a period of 2007-2012, the percentage of the total rural and urban poor decreased from 13.55% in 2007 to 9.89% in 2012.

Total workforce within Citarum River Basin increased from 2005 to 2010, or rose from 7,487,365 to 11,785,666 people. The increase in the number of migrants partly contributed to the growing number of workforce in the basin area. The workforce growth rate was not in parallel with the job growth level, causing a decline in job opportunities and a rise in unemployment.   

Health condition of the people in Citarum River Basin is also seen from an environmental health perspective. Between 2009 and 2010 the number of people with access to drink water significantly increased by 10.1% from 53.66% in 2009 to 63.94% in 2010. This figure, however, needs to be further increased considering that the number of people with access to drink water is still relatively low. The percentage of people with healthy housing dropped by 2.75% in 2010 when compared to the previous year. This condition calls for a greater effort to improve the number of healthy houses in the basin.

West Java is one of the provinces which play a relatively important economic role both within the Island of Java and Indonesia. In 2012, West Java provincial economy contributed to 14.07% of the national income. While the share of the Island of Java’s income to national income was 57,62%. It means that West Java contributed to 24.41% of the Island of Java income. This shows the importance of West Java’s economy in driving both the Island of Java and national economies.

West Java Gross Regional Domestic Products (PDRB). In a period between 2010 and 2012, West Java economic performance kept increasing with an economic growth rate close to the national rate (6.23%), that is, 6.21% (2012). The 2010 West Java economic growth was much contributed by the growth of gross added value in the sectors of transportation, construction and trade with growth rates at 12%, 13.61% and 11.55% respectively.

By the amount of total income contributed by districts and cities within Citarum River Basin to the 2010 West Java Gross Regional Domestic Product at constant 2000 prices, the top five contributors are Bekasi District (17.88%), Bogor District (13.57%), Bandung City (10.30%), Bandung District (7.08%) and Bekasi City (5.03%).

Ecosystem and Biodiversity

The Citarum River Basin is home to endemic ecosystem found in West Java Province. The province has a highly diversified collection of plants with 3,882 species of flowering plants and ferns native to West Java and other 258 species of foreign origin. Of its orchid collection, there are 607 species of wild orchids (Orchidaceae), 302 species of them (50%) are native to West Java (Van Steenis in Backer & Bakhuizen van de Brink, 1965). Comber (1990) identified 248 species of orchids of West Java origin out of the total 642 species found in the province.

West Java has 1,106 species of plants (Prawira, tbt) that could be classified as trees, including 51 species considered of high value, such as jati/teakwood (Tectona grandis), rasamala (Altingia excelsa), kepuh (Sterculia foetida), jamuju (Podocarpus imbricatus), bayur (Pterospermum javanicum), puspa (Schima wallichii), kosambi (Schleichera oleosa), beleketebe (Sloenea sigun), pasang (Lithocarpus spp.), pedada (Sonneratia alba), bakau/mangrove (Rhizhopora mucronata), and others.


tarum areuy

Tarum Areuy
(Marsdenia Tinctoria)


(Tectona Grandis)


(Altingia Excelsa)


(Podocarpus Imbricatus)


(Mystus Negriceps)


(Pterospermum Javanicum)


(Schima Wallichii)


(Schleichera Oleosa)


(Channa Striatus)


(Sloanea Sigun)


(Lithocarpus spp)


(Rhizhopora Mucronata)

Source : West Java Province’s RTRW (Spatial Planning) 2009-2029

In general animals can be classified into groups of: insects, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. Some animals could be beneficial to humans, considered as pests, put into farming or for consumption as well as considered to be rare/in the brink of extinction and extinct. These animal conditions are also found in West Java, which is a part of Java and Bali bioregion.



(Hampala Macrolepidota)


(Barbodes Bramoides)


(Puntius Binotatus)


(Mystus Nemurus)


(Mystus Negriceps)


(Lais Hexanema)


(Clarias Bratachus)


(Callichrous Bimaculatus)


(Channa Striatus)

Two national parks, Gunung Gede Pangrango (15,000 ha) and Gunung Halimum (40,000 ha) are located at the upper part of Citarum. The two falls into a second category of national park – for ecosystem protection and recreation. The Mount Halimum region is the largest remaining tropical forest in the Island of Java. Gunung Gede Pangrango National Park is a mountainous area with a sub-montane forest cover and is considered as a model of major tropical rainforest in Indonnesia. The Mount Gede region serves as a catchment area with a number of river streams that flow into the Bay of Jakarta and Java Sea in addition to Citarum River.

Physical and Spatial Condition

Geographically, Citarum River Basin lies between 106° 51’36” - 107° 51’ East Longitude and 7° 19’ - 6° 24’ South Latitude, covering a total approximate area of  11,323 Km². The almost 12,000-km2 Citarum River Basin covers 13 administrative areas of districts and cities within West Java Province, namely: Bandung, West Bandung, Bekasi, Cianjur, Bogor, Indramayu, Karawang, Purwakarta, Subang and Sumedang Districts, and Bandung, Bekasi and Cimahi Cities.

The boundaries of Citarum River Basin are as follows :

  1. To the north is the Java Sea
  2. To the south are Cianjur District and a part of Bandung District 
  3. To the east are Garut District and a part of Indramayu and Sumedang Districts 
  4. To the west are Sukabumi District and a part of Bogor and Bekasi Districts

Topographically, or based on its land forms or morphological classification, Citarum River Basin could be divided into 3 sections, namely upstream, middle and downstream sections. (1) The upper section of  the basin comes in the form of a giant basin or popularly called Bandung Basin, located at elevations between 625 to 2,600 meters above sea level. (2) The middle section comes in various morphological landforms ranging from plains (elevations between 250 to 400 meters above sea level), undulating hills (elevations between 200 to 800 meters above sea level), steep slope hills (elevations between 1,400 to 2,400 meters above sea level) and volcanic edifices. (3) The downstream section is dominated by plains, undulating and steep slope hills in various elevations between 200 to 1,200 meters above sea level. All tributaries of the Citarum flow south to north, or they flow from their upstream regions in Mount Barangrang, Tunggul Hill and Canggah to the river mouth in the north coast (The Java Sea). 

Morphological formation of Citarum river basin was the result of tectonic and volcanic activities which was followed by erosion and sedimentation developments. The morphological condition comes in various landforms ranging from volcanic edifices to hillsides. And plains in the upper regions of Citarum’s tributaries morphologically come in the form of volcanic edifices featuring characteristics of mild and mountainous relief at elevations 750 to 2,300 meters above sea level and at slopes 5 to 15% at the foot, 15 to 30% at the mountain slope and 30 to 90% at the peak. The river has a parallel-radial drainage pattern developed mostly in shallow and deep major water catchment areas as well as in springs located at slope breaks. The rock sediments are composed of young and old volcanic sediments, that is, tuff, breccia, lahar and lava.

The Climate in Citarum River Basin, like in most areas within West Java, is of a tropical monsoon with a relatively constant temperature and humidity throughout a year. The tropical monsoon climate is characterized by two distinct seasons, that is, rainy and dry seasons. A rainy season happens between the months of October and March and a dry season from June to September. Other months serve as a transitional period. The average temperature in lowland areas is around 27° C, while the minimum temperature in the river’s upper region of highland/mountainous areas stands at the average of 15.3°C.

The average annual rainfall varies from 1,000 mm in coastal areas to 4,000 mm in the mountainous areas of the upper basin. Almost 70% of the annual rainfall occurs during a rainy season. The distribution of the seasonal rainfall is mainly attributable to seasonal winds. The orographic effect of the southern mountain range on the rainfall variation appears dominant.

Geological condition of Citarum River Basin comes in different formation in its upstream, middle and downstream parts. Upper Citarum areas are mainly formed by tuff, lava, breccia and lapilli. While in its middle part, the formation lithologically consists of volcanic sediments, ancient lake-floor sediments in several locations and river alluvial sediments in narrow valleys along the major stream. The volcanic sediments are composed of tuffaceous sandstones, tuff shale, tuff breccias and agglomerates. While lake-floor sediments are composed of tuff clay, tuff sandstones, tuff gravel and tuff conglomerates. Alluvium is composed of clay, silt and sandstone and gravels.  And they are generally made of tertiary sediments and materials from ancient volcanic eruptions. Downstream Citarum area is generally composed of tertiary sediments and materials from ancient volcanic eruptions.

Hydrogeological condition of Citarum River Basin as shown by the Groundwater Basin Map is estimated to have a total groundwater availability of 5,055 million cubic meters a year. Other than for domestic use, groundwater abstractions need government permissions and are subject to prevailing charges. In general the rate of groundwater abstraction is still below the ideal level, or still at 25%. In several locations, however, such as in groundwater basins of Bekasi-Karawang, Subang and Batujajar the rate has exceeded the ideal level. Nowadays, although the rate of groundwater abstraction in a groundwater basin of Bandung-Soreang is still less than the ideal level (still at 27%), but in several areas such as Majalaya, Ranca Ekek, Dayeuh Kolot, Leuwi Gajah and others, the rate has surpassed its ideal one, lowering the groundwater level and triggering a quite serious land subsidence in the areas.

Rivers. Citarum River Basin has 19 river streams which either empty into the north coast or join other rivers. Citarum is the major river in Citarum River Basin. The Citarum originates from Mount Wayang (Bandung District) and empties into Muara Gembong (Bekasi District). In accordance with the Presidential Decree Number 12 in the year 2012 on River Basin Territories, Citarum River Basin consists of 19 watershed areas.

There are 3 large dams, that is, Saguling, Cirata and Jatiluhur which provide hydroelectric power generation and serve local irrigation. The three are Saguling, Cirata and Jatiluhur Dams. All three are located in a Citarum River reach and 4 districts (Cianjur, Bandung Barat, Purwakarta and Karawang).

Technical Data of 3 Dams

DescriptionJatiluhurSaguling Cirata
Location Purwakarta District Bandung Barat District Purwakarta District
Surface Area
83.000 Ha 53.000 Ha 6.200 Ha
Constructed 1957 - 1967 1981 1982
Total Capacity
3,5 Billion m3 609 Million m3 2,165 Billion m3
Impounds Citarum River Citarum River Citarum River
Provisions Agricultural irrigation, Source Water supply, Freshwater fisheries,  Recreation and Water sports Agricultural irrigation, Hydropower Agricultural Irrigation, Source water supply, Hydropower
Hydropower Capacity
187,5 MW 1.400 MW 1.008 MW

Sourcer : Balai Besar Wilayah Sungai Citarum,   PSDA Office, West Java Province 2008


Jatiluhur Dam

waduk jatiluhur

Jatiluhur Dam is located in Jatiluhur Sub-district , Purwakarta District, West Java Province (about 9 km to Purwakarta city center). Jatiluhur Dam is Indonesia’s largest dam. The government names it Ir. H. Juanda Dam, which offers a panoramic lake view of its 8,300 ha surface area. The dam was started to be constructed by a French contractor in 1957 and boasts 12.9 billion cubic meters a year of total potential of water sources. It is the first multi-purpose dam in Indonesia.

Jatiluhur Dam has 6 units of turbines with a total installed capacity of 187 MW and an average annual electricity production of 1,000 million kwh. It is operated by Perum Jasa Tirta II. In addition, under the management of Perum Jasa Tirta II Jatiluhur Dam serves the provision of water supply to a total of 242,000 ha of irrigated rice fields (with two growing periods in a year), raw water supply for drinking water, aquaculture and flood control.

In addition to its function as a hydroelectric power generator with the world’s largest spillway, Jatiluhur region offers convenient recreation facilities, including hotels and bungalows, bars and restaurants, tennis courts, billiard facilities, camping grounds, swimming pools and water slides, meeting halls, water recreation and sports facilities, playgrounds and other facilities. Water recreation and water sports facilities accommodate various activities such as rowing, wind surfing, recreational boating, water skiing, boating and others.

Jatiluhur Lake also provides its water area for floating fish cage industry which has become a water recreation destination due to its unique attraction. Also within the region, we can see Satellite Earth Station located around 7 km from Purwakarta city center. It is operated by telecommunication provider PT. Indosat Tbk and serves for international communications. The services are, among others, International Toll Free Service (ITFS), Indosat Calling Card (ICC) and international direct dialing. Jatiluhur Dam is accessible through the Purbaleunyi (Purwakarta-Bandung-Cileunyi) toll road by taking the Jatiluhur exit-gate.

Jatiluhur Dam Technical Data

Construction began
Type of dam
Embankment, earth fill
Height 105 m
Length 1.200 m
Elevation at crest
+114,5 m
Dam volume
9,1 million m3
Storage volume
2,44 billion m3 at TMA + 107 m
Surface area
8.300 ha
Catchment area
4.500 km2
Provisions 242,000 ha of irrigated rice fields, raw water supply for Jakarta, electricity generation of 187,5 MW, freshwater fisheries, Tourism and water sports development


Saguling Dam


Saguling Dam is one of the large dams within Citarum River Basin which was built in 1981. At the beginning, Saguling Dam was intended to merely generate electricity. At the first phase, the hydroelectric power generator only has an installed capacity of 700 MW, which is expandable up to 1,400 MW in case of any rising demand in electricity in the future.

Saguling Dam is surrounded by hilly areas abundant with springs that feed the dam. This makes the dam have an irregular shape and numerous bays. The area used to be an agricultural land before the dam construction. Based on some researches, the dam’s water quality has significantly deteriorated due to water pollution resulted by agricultural and industrial productions, domestic activities and on the dam fisheries.

Up to 2008, Saguling Dam has accumulated sediments amounted to 84 million m3. The sedimentation rate in the dam is estimated at 4.2 million m3 or 4,819,664 tons a year. The sedimentation affects the function of the dam and the operation of hydroelectric generator. Additionally, industrial and domestic waste flown through the Citarum River reach worsens the sedimentation condition in the dam.

Saguling Dam Technical Data

Construction began
Type of Dam
Embankment, rock-fill with watertight core
Height above riverbed
97 m
Height 99 m
Length 301,4 m
Width 10 m
Elevation at crest
650,5 m
Reservoir total capacity
2,79 million m3
Provisions Agricultural irrigation, hydroelectric power 700 MW

- Flood Elevation : 645 m
- Highest Elevation : 643 m
- Lowest Elevation : 623 m
- Flood Surface Area : 53,432 km²
- Widest Surface Area : 48,695 km²
- Narrowest Surface Water : 17,407 km²
- Dam volume during flood : 982 million m³
- Maximum Dam Volume : 875 million m³
- Dam Volume at dry river : 163 million m³
- Effective Dam Volume: 609 million m³

Tributaries Ciminyak, Cibitung, Cipatik, Cilanang, Cihaur, Cijambu, dan Cijenuk
Catchment area 2.283 km2
Average Annual Rainfall
1.221 mm
Rainfall by Design
2.322 mm/year
Average Annual Discharge 80,85 m3/sec
Preventive Discharge by Design (Debit Desain Pengelak)
3.200 m3/sec

Sumber : Balai Besar Wilayah Sungai Citarum, Dinas PSDA Provinsi Jawa Barat 2008


Cirata Dam


Cirata Dam was built between 1982 and 1987 and is surrounded by hillsides. Researches on the dam’s water quality find that the water has been heavily contaminated and has accumulated sediments. Up to 2000, sediments accumulated in the dam have reached 62.8 million m3. While the dam was designed to sustain an extreme limit of sediment volume of 79.3 million m3.. This rapid sedimentation process is the consequence of the rampant forest clearance occurring within Citarum River Basin.

Similar with two other large dams in Citarum, Cirata Dam has a function as a hydroelectric power generator. It is the largest hydropower in Southeast Asia. It has an underground power house construction with a total installed capacity of 8 x 126 Megawatt (MW) or 1,008 Megawatt (MW) and an average annual electricity production of 1,428 Giga Watthour (GWh).

The hydropower plant is operated by PT Pembangkitan Jawa Bali (PJB), a subsidiary of the state-run electricity company PT Perusahaan Listrik Negara (PLN persero), which distributes the electricity output through a 500 kilovolt (KV) transmission network across Java and Bali Islands.

Cirata Dam Technical Data

Constructed 1982 - 1987
Type of Dam
Embankment, concrete-face rock-fill
Catchment Area (DPS) 4.119 km2
Shape of catchment area
Elevations Maximum Surface Water : +223.00
Normal Surface Water: +220.00
Minimum Surface Water: +205.00
Volume (m3) Maximum Surface Water : 2,165 million
Normal Surface Water : 1,975 million
Minimum Surface Water: 1,177 million
Luas Genangan (ha) Maximum : 6,560
Normal : 6,200
Anak Sungai Cicendo, Cimeta, Cisokan, Cibalagung, Cikundul
Curah Hujan Rata-Rata Tahunan 1.895 - 2.250 mm
Koefisien Limpasan 0,75
Faktor Reduksi 0,628
Probable Maximum Flood 6.642,3 m3/s
Manfaat Agricultural irrigation, raw water supply , 1,008 MW hydropower station

Source : Balai Besar Wilayah Sungai Citarum,  PSDA Office West Java Province 2008